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Dvara Analysis Weblog | DVARA-IMN BOCW Sequence


Dvara Analysis & India Migration Now


Inside migrants kind a vital a part of the casual labour drive, primarily employed in building.[1]  The development sector in India employs roughly 51 million people and contributes to 9% of India’s GDP, making it one of the vital essential sectors of the Indian economic system. Nevertheless, the casual nature of labor on this sector renders its employees most susceptible.

To present social safety and protected working circumstances to employees, the Authorities of India enacted the Constructing and Different Development Employees’ (regulation of employment and circumstances of service) Act, 1996 (BoCW).[2] Underneath the BOCW Act, each state authorities is directed to arrange a state-level BOCW Board and BOCW Welfare Fund. Employers of building employees are required to pay the BOCW Cess, which facilitates the social safety advantages offered by the BOCW Board.

The ambit of the Act covers many classes of employees – unskilled, semi-skilled, and expert, together with these inside supervisory, technical, or clerical roles. Through the COVID-19 pandemic, state governments had been requested to assist building employees registered beneath the state BOCW Board by utilising the cess fund.[3] Whereas a number of states initiated the method of Direct Profit Transfers to registered employees, it continues to exclude a big proportion of the development workforce that’s not registered and therefore unable to entry advantages beneath the BOCW Act.

Together with inadequacies in implementing the BOCW Act, there’s a want to grasp the position of all stakeholders concerned within the registration course of. Employers, contractors, unions, labour officers and different intermediaries can present proof for the exclusion building employees face within the registration and as beneficiaries.

Overview of Analysis Research

We labored to grasp the end-to-end journey to entry the entitlements beneath the BOCW Act. We targeted on 4 districts of Maharashtra, a state with the very best variety of interstate migrants in India.[4] The groups mapped out the beneficiaries’ exclusions confronted at completely different phases based mostly on the Dvara Analysis Exclusion Framework that outlines varied axes and phases of exclusion in Direct Profit Transfers.[5] Our key analysis questions had been:

1. What are the varied entry-level obstacles that eligible[6] employees face whereas trying to register themselves within the BOCW Welfare Board of Maharashtra?

2. What are the varied challenges that registered employees face whereas trying to entry the entitlements beneath the BOCW Act in Maharashtra?

  • What are the particular challenges confronted by feminine migrant employees whereas trying to entry the entitlements attributable to them beneath the BOCW Act in Maharashtra?
  • What are the challenges that stakeholders like civil society organisations, commerce unions, non-public sector firms and authorities representatives face when facilitating employees’ entry to the BOCW card in Maharashtra?

To reply these analysis questions, we performed key informant interviews with building employees, trade companions and organisations in Maharashtra that facilitate employees’ BOCW registration.  We interviewed a complete of 56 employees via telephonic and in-person mode. The group developed the interview information via an intensive evaluation of the literature and previous subject expertise with building employees in Maharashtra. We performed the in-person interviews of employees within the district of Thane via a subject go to to a labour Naka within the district. The research additionally concerned key informant interviews with 4 non-profit organisations and employees’ unions that function in Maharashtra, notably within the Mumbai area. We recognized the organisations based mostly on their engagement with migrant employees in Maharashtra and their involvement within the BOCW registration for building employees. The organisations and unions interviewed had been concerned at a grassroots degree with employees within the unorganised sector, together with building employees who discover work at labour nakas – a colloquial time period for a labour junction.

This research goals to offer policymakers and researchers with a complete overview of the varied impediments that actors throughout the BOCW ecosystem face. We hope that the research’s findings can information stakeholders to streamline the Act’s implementation.

On this collection’s subsequent set of weblog posts, we are going to present challenges and gaps within the BoCW Act implementation and spotlight the viewpoints of a number of stakeholders within the BoCW Act registration and repair supply.

[1] Kumar, S., & Fernandez, M. (2015). Urbanisation-Development-Migration Nexus in 5 cities in South Asia. LSE. Useful resource doc

[2] Development work, in line with Nationwide Industrial Classification, 2008, comes beneath 3 main classes –

  • Development of buildings,
  • Civil engineering works (roads, railways, utility tasks), and 
  • Specialised building actions like demolition, website preparation, and set up actions.

[3] Press Belief of India, Ministry of Labour & Employment, 2020. Retrieved from Ministry of Labour & Employment

[4] Census of India (2011): Migration. Retrieved 8 March 2022, from:

[5] Retrieved from

[6] As per the Maharashtra BOCW welfare board, a employee is eligible if they’re between 18 to 60 years of age, have labored for greater than 90 days within the final 12 months in Maharashtra, have proof of residence, identification and Aadhar card. Retrieved from

Cite this merchandise:


Dvara Analysis, I. M. (2022). DVARA-IMN BOCW Sequence. Retrieved from Dvara Analysis.


Dvara Analysis, India Migration Now. “DVARA-IMN BOCW Sequence.” 2022. Dvara Analysis.


Dvara Analysis, India Migration Now. 2022. “DVARA-IMN BOCW Sequence.” Dvara Analysis.



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